OCD (Obsessive-compulsive disorder)
What Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder in which people have recurring, unwanted thoughts, ideas or sensations (obsessions) that make them feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsions). The repetitive behaviors, such as hand washing, checking on things or cleaning, can significantly interfere with a person’s daily activities and social interactions.
Many people without OCD have distressing thoughts or repetitive behaviors. However, these thoughts and behaviors do not typically disrupt daily life. For people with OCD, thoughts are persistent, and behaviors are rigid. Not performing the behaviors commonly causes great distress. Many people with OCD know or suspect their obsessions are not realistic; others may think they could be true (known as limited insight). Even if they know their obsessions are not realistic, people with OCD have difficulty disengaging from the obsessive thoughts or stopping the compulsive actions.
A diagnosis of OCD requires the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions that are time-consuming (more than one hour a day), cause significant distress, and impair work or social functioning. OCD affects 2-3% of people in the India , and among adults, slightly more women than men are affected. OCD often begins in childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood; the average age symptoms appear is 19 years old.
Patients with OCD who receive appropriate treatment commonly experience an increased improved quality of life and improved functioning. Treatment may improve an individual's ability to function at school and work, develop and enjoy relationships, and pursue leisure activities.
Hypnotherapy with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
One effective treatment is a type of Hypnotherapy known as exposure and response prevention. During treatment sessions, patients are exposed to feared situations or images that focus on their obsessions, initially leading to increased anxiety. Patients are instructed to avoid performing their usual compulsive behaviors (known as response prevention). By staying in a feared situation without anything terrible happening, patients learn that their fearful thoughts are just thoughts rather than reality.
People learn that they can cope with their obsessions without relying on ritualistic behaviors, and their anxiety decreases over time. Using evidence-based guidelines, therapists and patients typically collaborate to develop an exposure plan that gradually moves from lower anxiety situations to higher anxiety situations. Exposures are performed both in treatment sessions and at home.
A class of medications known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), typicall used to treat depression, can also be effective in the treatment of OCD. The SSRI dosage used to treat OCD is commonly higher than that used to treat depression. Patients who do not respond to one SSRI medication sometimes respond to another. Other psychiatric medications can also be effective. Noticeable benefit usually takes six to twelve weeks.
Patients with mild to moderate OCD symptoms are typically treated with either Hypnotherapy or medication depending on patient preference, the patient’s cognitive abilities and level of insight, the presence or absence of associated psychiatric conditions, and treatment availability. It is recommended that patients with severe OCD symptoms receive both Hypnotherapy and medication.